The advent of virus reverse genetics has enabled the incorporation of genetically encoded reporter proteins into replication competent viruses these reporters include fluorescent proteins which have intrinsic chromophores that absorb light and re emit it at lower wavelengths and bioluminescent proteins which are luciferase enzymes that react with substrates to produce visible light the incorporation of these reporters into replication competent viruses has revolutionized our understanding . These viruses have been employed for in vitro and in vivo studies such as the screening of neutralizing antibodies or antiviral compounds the identification of host factors involved in viral replication cell tropism the development of vaccines or the assessment of viral infection dynamics in summary reporter expressing replicating competent iav represent a powerful tool for the study of iav both in vitro and in vivo. Replicating competent reporter expressing viruses rcrevs are one type of artificially modified viruses that not only retain the viral genetic characteristics but also possess the new properties of the reporter genes which represent a useful tool for quantitative analysis of viral replication and tracking viral protein transport in both living cells and animals. To circumvent this requirement replication competent iav expressing an easily traceable reporter protein can be used here we discuss the development and applications of recombinant replication competent iav harboring diverse fluorescent or bioluminescent reporter genes in different locations of the viral genome these viruses have been employed for in vitro and in vivo studies such as the screening of neutralizing antibodies or antiviral compounds the identification of host factors . Studying viral dissemination in vivo using replication competent reporter expressing iav remains a challenge because it requires that the reporter signal to be detected through tissue and skin pan et al published the generation of replication competent iav harboring gluc in the na segment using pr8 as the backbone iav gluc table 5 the viral na segment was similar to the described above
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